by Doug Paterson 翻譯：陳志軒
Brazilian Dr. Augusto Boal was raised in Rio de Janeiro. He was formally trained in chemical engineering and attended Columbia University in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Although his interest and participation in theatre began at an early age, it was just after he finished his degree at Columbia that he was asked to return to Brazil to work with the Arena Theatre in São Paulo. His work at the Arena Theatre led to his experimentation with new forms of theatre that would have an extraordinary impact on traditional practice.
奧古斯都‧博奧博士是巴西人在里約熱內盧長大。他在1940末到1950年代初在哥倫比亞大學念化學工程。雖然他很年輕時就對劇場感興趣也加入了劇團，但是直到從哥倫比亞畢業後，才受邀回到巴西在聖保羅的阿利那劇團 (Arena Theatre) 工作。他在阿利那劇團的工作讓他展開新形式劇場的實驗，這個形式的劇場對傳統戲劇造成驚人的衝擊。
Birth of the Spect-Actor
Prior to his experimentation, and following tradition, audiences were invited to discuss a play at the end of the performance. In so doing, according to Boal, they remained viewers and "reactors" to the action before them. In the 1960's Boal developed a process whereby audience members could stop a performance and suggest different actions for the character experiencing oppression, and the actor playing that character would then carry out the audience suggestions. But in a now legendary development, a woman in the audience once was so outraged the actor could not understand her suggestion that she came onto the stage and showed what she meant. For Boal this was the birth of the spect-actor (not spectator) and his theatre was transformed. He began inviting audience members with suggestions for change onto the stage to demonstrate their ideas. In so doing, he discovered that through this participation the audience members became empowered not only to imagine change but to actually practice that change, reflect collectively on the suggestion, and thereby become empowered to generate social action. Theatre became a practical vehicle for grass-roots activism.
Boal as a Threat
Because of Boal's work, he drew attention as a cultural activist. But the military coups in Brazil during the 1960's looked upon all such activity as a threat. Walking home from an Arena performance of Brecht’s The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui Boal directed in 1971, Boal was kidnapped off the street, arrested, tortured, and eventually exiled to Argentina, then self-exiled to Europe. In Argentina in 1973 he published his first major theatre text, The Theatre of the Oppressed (Routledge Press). While in Paris, Boal continued for a dozen years to teach his revolutionary approach to theatre, establishing several Centers for the Theatre of the Oppressed. In 1981 he organized the first International Festival of the Theatre of the Oppressed in Paris.
因為Boal的工作，他被視為一個文化行動主義者。但是1960年代的巴西軍政府把這些行動當做威脅。在1971年阿利那劇團表演Boal導演波特賴爾的《The Resistible Rise of Arturo U》這齣戲後，Boal在回家的路上被綁架、逮捕，拷問，最後被放逐到阿根廷，接著他自我放逐到歐洲。1973年在阿根廷出版了他第一本主要的戲劇著作<《壓迫者劇場》(Routledge Press出版)。在巴黎期間，Boal持續花了許多年時間教授他的變革的劇場方法，並設立了數個受壓迫者劇場中心。1981年，他在巴黎籌辦了第一屆的國際受壓迫者劇場節。
Return to Rio
Following the removal of the military junta in Brazil, Boal returned to Rio de Janeiro in 1986 where he continues to reside. He has established a major Center for the Theatre of the Oppressed there (CTO - Rio) and has formed over a dozen companies which develop community-based performances. The vehicles for these presentations are primarily Forum Theatre and Image Theatre. Forum Theatre relies upon presentation of short scenes that represent problems of a given community such as gender for a conference on women or racial stereotyping for a class on racism. Audience members interact by replacing characters in scenes and by improvising new solutions to the problems being presented. Image theatre uses individuals to sculpt events and relationships sometimes to the accompaniment of a narrative.
隨著巴西軍政府的下臺，Boal 於1986年回到里約熱內盧定居。他在那裡設立了一個主要的受壓迫者劇場中心(CTO- Rio)，以及成立了許多發展社區表演的劇團。這些劇團主要是採用論壇劇場(Forum Theatre)和形象劇場(Image Theatre)。論壇劇場主要依靠呈現幾個小場景，呈現某個群體所遭遇的問題，像是談論女性議題的會議中，以性別為主題，或是在討論種族主義的課堂上，以種族偏見為主題。論壇時由觀眾即興的提出不同的新的解決辦法並取代劇中的演員演出。形象劇場用不同的雕像呈現事件和某種關係，有時候會伴隨著故事性的描述。
Boal at ATHE
In 1992, Boal was invited to be the keynote speaker for the National Conference of the Association for Theatre in Higher Education (ATHE) in Atlanta, Georgia. This is the national association for teachers of theatre in higher education in the United States, with international connections to Canada, Europe, South America, Australia, increasingly Asia, and recently Africa. His address, together with three 5-hour long workshops during the conference, infused the participants with both a workable understanding of how to take the approaches to their schools and communities and a desire to actually use the techniques. Few other names now appear as often as Boal's in the annual conference program.
Second Book Published
In 1992, Boal also published his second major work, Games for Actors and Non-Actors (Routledge Press). This is a splendid basic introduction to the entire range of TO theory and practice, and is useful to people experienced and inexperienced in theatre making.
Boal as Politician; Festival of TO
In the fall of 1992, Boal ran as an at-large candidate for the position of Vereador of Rio, a position similar to a City Council seat in the United States. Over one thousand candidates ran for forty-five seats; Boal was one of those elected. Because of the increased visibility brought about by his winning a seat, he was able to obtain funding to hold an international festival for the first time in Brazil in July, 1993. The Seventh International Festival of the Theatre of the Oppressed attracted one hundred, fifty Theatre of the Oppressed practitioners from around the world in an extraordinary confluence of languages, theatre styles, and social issues. The Eighth such Festival was called the Ripple Effect sponsored by Mixed Company Theatre in Toronto, Canada, and was held from May 29 to June 8, 1997. Three hundred practitioners again from around the world attended. One of the featured performances was by the company Boal directs in his hometown, the CTO - Rio. This performance and the magnanimity of the CTO-Rio group was one of the true highlights of this extraordinary gathering.
1992年秋天，Boal成為裡約的市政委員的候選人，類似于美國的市議員。有超過一千名的候選人爭取四十五個席位；Boal是當選人之一。他由於勝選而知名度大增，因而獲得足夠的基金支持他於1993年七月首度在巴西舉辦國際慶典。第七屆國際受壓迫者劇場節聚集了一百五十位來自全球的受壓迫者劇場的實踐者，集合了截然不同語言，不同戲劇方式及社會議題。到了第八屆這樣的節慶被稱為漣猗效應由Mixed Company Theatre贊助，從1997年5月29日到6月8日在加拿大的多倫多市舉行。全世界的三百位實踐者再次參加。其中一場最著名的表演，是由Boal指導來自他家鄉的CTO-Rio劇團的演出。CTO-Rio劇團充滿包容力的表演是這次盛大集會最精采的一個部分。
Boal in Omaha: Pedagogy & Theatre of the Oppressed Conference
1994 saw Boal's first arrival in Omaha, Nebraska, as he presented an "introductory" workshop to students, faculty, and regional social service personnel. In 1995 Boal keynoted the Pedagogy of the Oppressed Conference sponsored by the University of Nebraska at Omaha and presented numerous community and educational workshops demonstrating his theatrical approaches. At this same time, Boal's third major book, The Rainbow of Desire (Routledge Press), was published, which elaborates a psycho-therapeutic application of the Boal techniques, especially Image Theatre.
1994年Boal第一次到內布拉斯加州的阿馬哈市，為學生、教職員以及地方社會服務機構的工作人員辦了一個入門式的工作坊。1995年，Boal主持了由阿馬哈市的Nebraska大學贊助所舉行的受壓迫者教育學會議，並帶領無數的社區和教育工作坊示範戲劇的應用方式。同時，Boal的第三本主要著作，《欲望的彩虹》( Routledge Press)出版，詳細說明了關於心理治療在Boal的技巧中的應用，尤其是形象劇場。
Boal & Freire
Over many years, Boal continued to strengthen his relationship with liberatory educator, Paulo Freire, author of the acclaimed Pedagogy of the Oppressed. At the Second Annual Pedagogy of the Oppressed Conference in Omaha in March 1996, both men appeared together on a public platform to reflect on liberatory education and to answer questions from an audience of around one thousand people. Because of their several necessary flights for personal and family safety during the 1960's - 1980's, this co-appearance was the first time Augusto Boal and Paulo Freire shared a common public stage. Sadly, Paulo Freire passed away in early May, 1997. Said Boal: "I am very sad. I have lost my last father. Now all I have are brothers and sisters." The Third Annual Conference of Pedagogy & Theatre of the Oppressed was held in mid-May, 1997, where Boal led workshops in Forum Theatre. Several of the pieces developed kicked off the Conference with much interaction, reflection, action, and discussion from the conference attendees. Boal also concluded the Conference with an image exercise which amounted to a fascinating visual "critique" of the Conference itself.
長期以來Boal與解放教育學家同時也是《受壓迫者教育學》的作者Paulo Freire，持續的友好關係。在1996年三月第二屆于阿馬哈市的受壓迫者教育學年會上， 兩個人一起在講臺上談解放教育，並回答上千聽眾的問題。由於1960到1980年代間，他們為了個人和家庭的安全而必須數度出走，所以這是Augusto Boal 和 Paulo Freire第一次同時出現在公共舞臺。很遺憾Paulo Freire在1997年三月初過世。Boal說：「我非常難過，我失去了我最後的父親。現在只剩下兄弟姊妹了（指解放教育的實踐者們）」。第三屆受壓迫者教育學與劇場年會在1997年三月中舉行，Boal帶領了論壇劇場的工作坊。其中的幾出戲在會議中演出，和參加會議的人有很好的互動、迴響、行動和討論。Boal最後以形象練習作為大會的結束，對會議本身產生很好的視覺上的＂批評＂。
Though he lost his bid for re-election in the fall of 1996, while in office, Vereador Boal developed a Forum type of theatre -- which he called Legislative Theatre -- to work at the neighborhood level to identify the key problems in the city. Using the Forum concept, he employed the dynamics of theatre to discuss what kinds of legislation needed to be enacted to address community problems. The resulting discussions and demonstrations became the basis for actual legislation put forward by Boal in the Chamber of Vereadors. Not surprisingly, Boal has summarized these discoveries and processes in Legislative Theatre, published by Routledge in 1998.
Boal in England
The summer of 1997 found Boal in England where he worked with the world-renowned Royal Shakespeare Company. The RSC asked Boal to employ his Rainbow of Desire techniques in working with them on a production of Hamlet. Typical of Boal, he is not interested in the central story but in the characters who are usually cut from the play, and thus imagined a text of the marginal characters, the ones without much power. He says it might be similar to the national dish of Brazil which is based on a stew made by slaves of the leavings from the masters table.
1997年夏天，Boal在英格蘭和世界知名的皇家莎士比亞劇團(Royal Shakespeare Company)合作。RSC要求Boal運用欲望的彩虹的技巧和他們一起製作Hamlet這齣戲。典型的Boal作風，對於故事核心並不感興趣，但是對經常在演出時被刪掉的角色卻很有興趣，料想得到他是一個不重要的沒有太多權力的角色。他說這狀況有點像巴西，那是一道由從主桌上撤下再由奴隸煮成的料理。
In August, 1997, Boal was awarded the Career Achievement Award by the Association for Theatre in Higher Education during their national conference in Chicago. At the Conference, Boal conducted yet another of his five-hour workshops for conference attendees as well as received the coveted Career Achievement honor.
Boal's International and US Travels
Traveling extensively between Rio, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, and North America, Boal labors tirelessly to make his processes available to as many people as he can reach. December 1998 found him in England offering his remarkable Legislative Theatre not only as a model of public performance, but as a communication network on the Internet. For this reason, the entire performance day was on-line on the World Wide Web so that people around the world could respond.
Boal went on a first major tour of the US in February and March, 1999, traveling to the following universities and colleges: New College in Sarasota, FL; Vassar; Dartmouth; Colby College; University of Georgia; Florida State; and Kansas State. New College, Dartmouth, and Kansas State, and perhaps others of these, now have student TO companies working regularly on Boal techniques.
1999年二月和三月Boal展開第一次到訪美國的重要旅程，負笈以下各州和大學：佛羅里達薩拉索塔的新學院; 瓦瑟學院; 達特茅斯學院；柯比學院(Colby College); 喬治亞大學; 佛羅里達洲;和堪薩斯洲立大學。新學院，達特茅斯學院(Dartmouth)，以及堪薩斯洲立大學以及一些其它的大學，現在有些學生被壓迫者劇場工作室經常採用Boal的技巧。
Since then he has toured to the US every spring, anchoring his tours on the annual Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference and then giving workshops and presentations in many US and Canadian cities – Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, Seattle, Denver, Omaha, Minneapolis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Toledo, Toronto, New York City, Boston, Peoria IL, Worcester MA, and Bowling Green OH.
之後他每年春天都會到舉行＂受壓迫者教育學會議和劇場會議＂的美加城市，主持工作坊和演講- 如，洛杉磯， 聖巴巴拉市，三藩市，西雅圖，丹佛，阿馬哈，阿馬哈市，芝加哥， 密爾瓦基市，托利多，多倫多，紐約市，波士頓，伊利諾州的皮若亞市，麻州的烏斯特以及俄亥俄州的博靈格林。
The objective is always to leave behind at least a core of people who can offer Boal-style workshops, analysis, and ideas. Hopefully there are hundreds and even thousands of people carrying out this liberatory approach to community animation.